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Biology: Style Guide

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CSE (Print)

CSE Style Guide

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The Council of Science Editors (CSE) style is designed for the general sciences including biology. These examples are based on the Name-Year style of the 2006 scientific style and format guide, 7th edition. You need to cite your sources in two places within your paper: in-text and bibliography

Part I outlines how to cite a paraphrased summary of an author's words or work within your paper.

Part II outlines how to create an alphabetical list of references at the end of your paper that lists anything you cite.


There are three types of in-text citation options for the CSE: Name-Year, Citation-Sequence, Citation-Name. Willamette uses the Name-Year option.  In-text references consist of paraphrased descriptions of research done by others. Parentheses are placed around the author's surname and year of publication.  Quotes are rarely used in scientific publications.

Citing a work by a single author
The NIH has called for a change in smallpox vaccination policy (Fauci 2002) that...
Citing a work by two authors
When a work has 2 authors, give both names and separate them by "and" plus the year in between parentheses. If the authors have the same surname, include their first initials.
In a recent study (Williams and Jones 2013) found...
In a recent study (Williams T and Williams B 2013) found...
Citing a work by three or more authors
When a work has more than two authors, give only the first author's name followed by "et al." and the publication year.
... but later studies (Ito et al. 2014) established that...
Corporations or organizations as authors
If the author is an organization, committee, or corporation, a shortened form may be created for the in-text reference to avoid interrupting the text with a long string of words. Use the initial letters of each part of the name or a readily recognizable abbreviation.  Include your abbreviation in square brachets for your reference list.
The landmark report on legalized abortion ([IOM] 1975) was...
No author
If the author cannot be determined, do not use "anonymous."  Instead, substitute it with an organization name if one is available.  And if there is no organization, use the first word or few words of the title, followed by ellipsis. Only use enough words of the title to distinguish it from other titles. 
Drug dosage recommendations for elderly patients (Handbook... 2000) depart from...
No date
Occasionally it is not possible to determine any date associated with a publication.  If the document was found online, use the date you viewed it instead.  Alternatively for print publications, place the words "date unknown" within square brackets. 
Only one study (Hamilton 2014) relating the adverse effects of hormone...
Only one study (Hamilton [date unknown]) relating the adverse effects of...


The reference list is located at the end of a document under the heading "Reference," "Cited References," Literature Cited," or "Bibliography." It alphabetically lists and matches the sources cited within the text, including tables and figures.

Articles (1 to 10 Authors)
Pierce JP, Messer K, White MM, Cowling DW, Thomas DP. 2011. Prevalence of heavy smoking in California and the United States, 1965-2007. JAMA 305(11): 1106-1112.
Article (11 or More Authors)
Edmunds W, Pebody R, Aggerback H, Baron S, Berbers G, Conyn-Van SM, Hallander H, Olander R, Maple P, De Melker H, et al. 2000. The sero-epidemiology of diptheria in Western Europe. Epidemiol Infect 125(1):113-25.
Article (From Internet)
Halford NG, Curtis TY, Muttucumaru N, Postles J, Mottram DS. 2011. Sugars in crop plants. Ann Appl Biol [Internet] [cited 2014 Feb 2]; 158(1):1-25. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2010.00443.x
Blog Post
Salopek P. 2014 Apr 17. The river door [blog post]. Out of Eden walk: dispatches from the field from Paul Salopek. [assessed 2014 May 19].
McCormac JS, Kennedy G. 2004. Birds of Ohio. Auburn (WA): Lone Pine.
Book Chapters
Cantrill J. 1996. Gold, Yellowstone, and the search for a rhetorical identity. In Herndl C, Brown S, editors. Green culture: environmental rhetoric in contemporary America. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Press. p. 166-194.
Book with Editors
Herndl CG, Brown SC, editors. 1996. Green culture: environmental rhetoric in contemporary America. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Press.
Book with no Author
CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. c2008. Cleveland (OH): CRC Press.
CD, DVD, or Blu-ray Disc
NOVA: secrets beneath the ice [DVD]. Seifferlein B, editor; Hochman G, producer. Boston (MA): WGBH Educational Foundation; 2010. 1 DVD: 52 min.
Williams R, Johnson P. 2008. Genetic policing: the use of DNA in chemical investigations [Internet]. Portland (OR): Willan Publishing; [cited 2014 Sept 30]. Available from NetLibrary:
Conference Proceeding
Clarke A, Crame JA. 2003. Importance of historical processes in global patterns of diversity. In: Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, editors. Macroecology: concepts and consequences. Proceedings of the 43rd annual symposium of the British Ecological Society; 2002 Apr 17-19; Birmingham. Malden (MA): Blackwell.
Encyclopedia Entry (Print)
Robertson MP. 2009. Origins of life: emergence of the RNA world. In: Wiley encyclopedia of chemical biology. Vol. 3. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons. p. 517-28.
Red blood clot. Encyclopedia Britannica Online [Internet] [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Images from Print Resource
Bronze MS, Greenfield RA. 2005. Biodefense: principles and pathogens. Norfolk: England.
Newspaper Article
Azar B, Martin S. 1999 Oct. APA's Council of Representatives endorses new standards for testing, high school psychology [Internet]. APA Monitor. [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Online Video
Life: creatures of the deep: nemertean worms and sea starts [video]. 2010 Ma 21, 2:55 min. Gunton M, executive producers; Holmes M, series producers. [accessed 2011 Feb 4]. 
Mirsky, S, host; Conrad N, interviewee. 2011 Feb 17, 19:26 min. The spirit of innovation: from high school to the moon [podcast]. Sci Am. [accessed 2021 Oct 1].
Technical Reports (Govern. Publications)
Ford PL, Fagerlund RA, Duszynski DW, Polechla PJ. 2004. Fleas and lice of mammals in New Mexico. Fort Collins (CO): USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. General Technical Report NR RMRS-GTR-123.
Dettmers JM. 1995. Assessing the trophic cascade in reservoirs: the role of an introduced predator [dissertation]. Columbus (OH): Ohio State University.
Web Sites (Govern. Publications)
Bush G. 1989 Apr 12. Principles of ethical conduct for government officers and employees [Internet]. Executive Order 12674. Part 1 [cited 2014 Feb 20]. Available from
Web Sites (No Author)
Substitute the author with one of these alternatives and in this order:
Organization name, Document title, or Page title.
[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture [Internet]. 2004. USDA announces first steps to update biotechnology regulations [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Web Sites (No Publication Date)
Within your bibliography, skip the date. Within the paper (in-text), substitute the date with the access date.
APHIS. APHIS Hot issues [Internet] [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Web Sites (Personal Sites)
APSnet: plant pathology online [Internet]. c1994-2005. St. Paul (MN):American Phytopathological Association; [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Web Sites (Professional Organizations)
Medtext, Inc [Internet]. 2008. Hypertension, dialysis and clinical nephrology - kidney [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from



Zotero is a reference manager designed to store, manage, and cite bibliographic references, such as books and articles. It also is a powerful tool for collecting, organizing, and sharing research information and sources.

This free, open source tool works with Macs and PCs (a beta version for Chromebooks has recently been released). Download both desktop and browser extension for it to work with Google Docs and MS Word. References also can be copied and pasted. 

Setup instructions and more info at:  

For help contact:
Bill Kelm, or
John Repplinger,