Skip to Main Content Libraries

IDS 101: Tabletop Game Design

The American Psychology Association (APA) is designed for the social & life sciences such as psychology, anthropology, medicine. The manual is available at the reference desk (call #: Ref BF76.7.P83 2020).


In-text Examples

Single author
A recent study of stress levels (Brown, 2018) reveals...
In a recent study of stress levels, Brown (2018) discusses...
Two authors
Research by Williams and Jones (2020) found...
... was found to have a high correlation (Williams & Jones, 2020)...
Three or more authors
(Taylor et al., 2018)
Kisangau et al. (2019) found...
No authors
Consider whether a group or organization is the author. A work is treated as having no author when its author is unknown or cannot be reasonably be determined. Instead, use the first few words of the title of the work in place of the author.
... on free care (Study Finds, 2016)
... the book College Bound Seniors (2019)
... the Kidney Dialysis Report by the National Kidney and Transplant Division of Urology (2020) shows...
Anonymous authors
If, and only if, the work is signed "Anonymous," use "Anonymous" as the author.
(Anonymous, 2017)
Anonymous (2017) stated...
Content generated by A.I. is nonrecoverable; it cannot be retrieved or linked to later, therefore it must be cited differently.
(Open AI, 2023)
As paraphrased from ChatGPT (2023) or generated by ChatGPT


Reference Examples

The reference list is organized alphabetically typically by the author's last name, followed by additional info that describe the source to help readers locate the item. The following examples are the most commonly referenced types of sources. 

Book with one or more author

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

Book compiled by editor

Schulian, J. (2019). The great American sports page: A century of classic columns from Ring Lardner to Sally Jenkins. Library of America.

Book editions

Herndon, D. (2018). Total burn care  (5th ed.). Elsevier.

Book chapter in an edited book

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345-359). American Psychological Association.


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

Dictionary entry

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Culture. In dictionary. Retrieved September 9, 2020, from

Facebook Post

News From Science. (2019, June 21).Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system--and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

Government report

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Services, National Institute of Health

Journal article

Joly, J. F., Stapel, D. A., & Lindenberg, S. M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047-1056.

Barber, A. E., & Roehling, M. V. (1993). Job postings and the decision to interview: A verbal protocol analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 845-856.

Newspaper article, no author

Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.


King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream. [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

Television broadcast

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.


Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it's difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Webpage on a Website

Note: URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed.

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death.

YouTube video

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube.

MLA LogoThe Modern Language Association (MLA) style is designed for the humanities such as English, Spanish, German. The manual is available at the reference desk: Reference LB2369.M52 2021


In-text Examples

You must cite the source of either a quotation or paraphrased material. Include the author's name and the page number(s) from which the material was taken in parentheses following the statement you make. If you mention the author in the text, you do not have to repeat his or her name in the citation. If you cite more than one work by the same author in your paper, you must include a short title to inform the reader of which work you are citing.

Citing in text by paraphrasing:
In A Critical History of American Literature David Lynch provides a useful discussion of the Romantics (538-89), as well as authors from other periods.
Citing in text by paraphrasing:
In the 1990s, media coverage of police brutality reached an all time high (Marshall 6).
Citing in text by quoting:
The author has described this era to be "the most turbulent in modern history" (Brown 21).
Citing in text by quoting:
In "The Threshold of the Mountain in Dante's Divine Comedy," Helen Luke notes that "almost daily this great image of Dante's passage from the blind murk to the shining dark may come to our aid"(55).
Citing in text by ChatGPT:
(paraphrased from ChatGPT) or (generated by ChatGPT).



Book, Single author
Pollak, Vivian R. Dickinson: The Anxiety of Gender. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1984.
Book, Multiple authors
Holman, C. Hugh and William Harman. A Handbook to Literature. New York: Macmillan, 1992.
Reference Book Article
"Mandarin." Encyclopedia Americana. 1980 ed.
Journal Article with continuous pagination
Spear, Karen. "Building Cognitive Skills in Basic Writers." Teaching English in the Two-Year College 9 (1983): 91-98.
Journal Article that uses only issue numbers or pages
Lyon, George Ella. "Contemporary Appalachian Poetry: Sources and Directions." Kentucky Review 2.2 (1981): 3-22.
Journal Article, Weekly or biweekly
Begley, Sharon. "A Healthy Dose of Laughter." Newsweek 4 Oct. 1982: 60-88.
Journal Article, Monthly or bimonthly
Snyder, Mark. "Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes." Psychology Today July 1982: 60-88.
Newspaper Article
Collin, Glenn. "Single-Father Survey Finds Adjustment a Problem." New York Times 21 Nov. 1983, late ed.: B17.
Internet Resources

Author/editor. Title. Edition statement (if given). Place of publication: publisher, date. Medium. Source of electronic information (if available). Available: URL. Access date.

Unlandherm, Frank. Middle East studies resources . New York: Columbia University, 1997. Online. Columbia University: Available: 19 August 1997.

Arab republic of Egypt. Austin, TX: Center for Middle East Studies, 1 June 1997. Online. Middle East Network Information Center. Available: 18 August 1997.


Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by Scott Fitzgerald prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023,


For other examples of citing Internet resources see: The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. (Ref. LB 2369 .G53 2003) sections 5.9 (page 207), sections 6.4 (page 242).

The MLA website also has helpful info on their MLA Style Center page.


Zotero is a powerful reference manager that stores, organizes, and creates bibliographic references for you. It works with Google Docs and MS Word (a beta version for Chromebooks is available). 


Instructions at:  

For help contact:
Bill Kelm, or
John Repplinger,

Willamette University

Willamette University Libraries

Mark O. Hatfield Library
900 State Street.
Salem Oregon 97301
Pacific Northwest College of Art Library
511 NW Broadway.
Portland Oregon 97209