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EXHS 256: Research Designs and Analysis: APA

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Citation Tools at WU

Learn tools that will make citing resources much easier when using the library catalog, library databases, and Google Scholar.  Also discover, Zotero, a free resource for managing citations/bibliographic data. Additional information is available on the Why Cite Sources page.

APA Citation Guide

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The American Psychology Association (APA) is designed for the social & life sciences (e.g. psychology, anthropology, medicine). 

The APA style manual proscribes 2 different sets of rules:  one for IN TEXT citations, and the other for the REFERENCE LIST (which appears only at the end of your work). The examples shown below are for both formats and come from the newest version of this APA style manual, the 7th edition, published in 2020.

In-Text Citations

These in-text examples use the APA author-date method of citation; the author's last name and year of publication are inserted within the text of the paper and refer to the reference list at the end of the work.

Single author
A recent study of stress levels (Brown, 2018) reveals...
In a recent study of stress levels, Brown (2018) discusses...
Two authors
Research by Williams and Jones (2020) found...
... was found to have a high correlation (Williams & Jones, 2020)...
Three or more authors
(Taylor et al., 2018)
Kisangau et al. (2019) found...
No authors
If there are no authors, consider whether a group or organization is the author. A work is treated as having no author when its author is unknown or cannot be reasonably be determined. In this case, use the first few words of the title of the work into the author position. Titles of journals, books, and reports are italicized because they are proper names.
... on free care (Study Finds, 2016)
... the book College Bound Seniors (2019)
... the Kidney Dialysis Report by the National Kidney and Transplant Division of Urology (2020) shows...
Anonymous authors
If, and only if, the work is signed "Anonymous," use "Anonymous" as the author.
(Anonymous, 2017)
Anonymous (2017) stated...
Content generated by A.I. is nonrecoverable; it cannot be retrieved or linked to later, therefore it must be cited differently.
(Open AI, 2023)
As paraphrased from ChatGPT (2023) or generated by ChatGPT

Reference List

The reference list is organized alphabetically typically by the author's last name, followed by additional info that describe the source to help readers locate the item. The following examples are the most commonly referenced types of sources. 

Book with one or more author

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

Book compiled by editor

Schulian, J. (2019). The great American sports page: A century of classic columns from Ring Lardner to Sally Jenkins. Library of America.

Book editions

Herndon, D. (2018). Total burn care  (5th ed.). Elsevier.

Book chapter in an edited book

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345-359). American Psychological Association.


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

Dictionary entry

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Culture. In dictionary. Retrieved September 9, 2020, from

Facebook Post

News From Science. (2019, June 21).Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system--and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

Government report

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Services, National Institute of Health

Images (note: site name or museum location may be used)

National Institutes of Health. (2015). No 7 diabetic foot [3D print model ID 3DPX-001560]. NIH 3D Print Exchange

van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY, United States.

Journal article

Joly, J. F., Stapel, D. A., & Lindenberg, S. M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047-1056.

Barber, A. E., & Roehling, M. V. (1993). Job postings and the decision to interview: A verbal protocol analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 845-856.

Newspaper article, no author

Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.


King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream. [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

Television broadcast

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.


Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it's difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Webpage on a Website

Note: URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed.

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death.

YouTube video

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube.

How to Use Zotero

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