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PHEAL 101: Introduction to Public Health--Spring 2020: Style Guide



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Style Guide--Print

APA Style Guidelines--Online

APA Style In-Text Citations

These examples use the APA author-date method of citation; the author's last name and year of publication are inserted within the text of the paper.

Single author
A recent study of stress levels (Brown, 2018) reveals...
In a recent study of stress levels, Brown (2018) discusses...
Two authors
Research by Williams and Jones (2020) found...
... was found to have a high correlation (Williams & Jones, 2020)...
Three or more authors
(Taylor et al., 2018)
Kisangau et al. (2011) found...
No authors
If there are no authors, use the editor or organization name instead. If those are not available, use the title instead. Within the parentheses double quotation marks are placed around the first few words.  Titles of journals, books, brochures, and reports are italicized because they are proper names.
... on free care ("Study Finds," 2016)
... the book College Bound Seniors (2019)
... the Kidney Dialysis Report by the National Kidney and Transplant Division of Urology (2020) shows...

APA Style Reference List

Book with one or more author

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

Book compiled by editor

Schulian, J. (2019). The great American sports page: A century of classic columns from Ring Lardner to Sally Jenkins. Library of America.

Book editions

Herndon, D. (2018). Total burn care  (5th ed.). Elsevier.

Book chapter in an edited book

Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345-359). American Psychological Association.

Dictionary entry

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Culture. In dictionary. Retrieved September 9, 2020, from

Facebook Post

News From Science. (2019, June 21).Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system--and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

Government report

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Services, National Institute of Health

Journal article

Joly, J. F., Stapel, D. A., & Lindenberg, S. M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047-1056.

Barber, A. E., & Roehling, M. V. (1993). Job postings and the decision to interview: A verbal protocol analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 845-856.

Newspaper article, no author

Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.


King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream. [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

Television broadcast

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.


Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it's difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Webpage on a Website

Note: URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed.

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death.

YouTube video

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube.

Willamette University

Willamette University Libraries

Mark O. Hatfield Library
900 State Street.
Salem Oregon 97301
Pacific Northwest College of Art Library
511 NW Broadway.
Portland Oregon 97209