Definition of CENSUS from Wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Census>
CENSUS: The procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used mostly in connection with national 'population and door to door censuses' (to be taken every 10 years according to United Nations recommendations), agriculture, and business censuses. The term itself comes from Latin: during the Roman Republic the census was a list which kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Census data is commonly used for research, business marketing, and planning as well as a base for sampling surveys.
Here is a brief listing of the major types of Economics Censuses for specific industries, topics, and types of businesses that are produced on a rotating cycle by the U.S. Census Bureau (a unit of the U.S. Department of Commerce), typically on a 5 year cycle in years ending with "2" and "7":
American FactFinder - a menu driven service, which provides customized reports for every economic census query. You can select from a variety of geographies, topics, industries, all in a context sensitive, sequence dependent series of options that you select.
In addition to these sets of standardized censuses of the nation's economy, there are hundreds of other statistical resources produced by the U.S. government, including monthly reports on energy & fuels; monthly reports on money, credit & banking; quarterly reports on labor; annual reports of crime and of education.
This listing is just the tip of the iceberg. Depending on what specific product or service you are focusing on, there can be a specific U.S. government statistical report that focuses on something as narrow as quarterly data of refrigerated truck shipments of fresh fruits & vegetables moving from selected agricultural districts that were headed to 9 metropolitan destinations (see pages 2 & 3 of this PDF document)!
Please note that for most of these industry specific nationwide economic censues, the most recent information published is for the year 2012.
You can also view a grid chart showing you what economic censuses will be released in the near future, in the Census Bureau's Data Release Schedule (which is available by Industry, selected Topics and by Geography).
Most of the Economic Census resources mentinoed above include data & analytical reports that make use of NAICS or SIC codes to cluster & compare information about corporations and industries. This is common for most governmental agencies in North America, as well as finding these code numbers in business oriented analytical resources produced by for-profit service firms.