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Citation Styles: APA

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APA (Print)

APA Citation Guide

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The American Psychology Association (APA style) is designed for the social & life sciences (e.g. psychology, anthropology, medicine). 

The APA style manual proscribes 2 different sets of rules:  one for IN TEXT citations, and the other for the REFERENCE LIST (which appears only at the end of your work). The examples shown below are for both formats and come from the newest version of this APA style manual, the 7th edition, published in 2020.

In-Text Citations

These examples use the 7th edition of the APA's Publication Manual, with preference given to the author-date method of citation; the author's last name and year of publication are inserted within the text of the paper.  When the author of a work is overtly designated as "Anonymous", then "Anonymous" takes the place of the author's names within an in-text citation.

Single author
An in depth interview about oil disasters (Koger, 2015) reveals...
In a study about disastrous consequences of oil blowouts, Koger (2015) discusses...
Two authors
An analysis of identifiable victim effects by Friedrich and McGuire (2010) found...
... was found to have a high correlation (Friedrich & McGuire, 2020)...
Three or more authors
(Stevens et al., 2020)
Witkow et al. (2017) found...
  • Book with no author: (Interpersonal Skills, 2019) -- within the reference list, this would be alphabetized as "Interpersonal".
  • Magazine article with no author: ("Understanding Sensory Memory," 2018) -- within the reference list, would be alphabetized as "Understanding".
  • Book overtly authored by Anonymous: (Anonymous, 2017) -- within the reference list, this would be alphabetized as "Anonymous".
  • Book with no author: (Interpersonal Skills, 2019) -- within the reference list, this would be alphabetized as "Interpersonal".
  • Magazine article with no author: ("Understanding Sensory Memory," 2018) -- within the reference list, would be alphabetized as "Understanding".
  • Book overtly authored by Anonymous: (Anonymous, 2017) -- within the reference list, this would be alphabetized as "Anonymous".
No authors
If there are no authors, do NOT spell out the editor or organization name for the in-text citation.  But do spell out the editor and organization name later on, within the reference list (but only if the work has editors and/or organizational sponsors). 
If a work is specifically identified as having an "Anonymous" author, then the both the in-text citation and reference list will show the author as if they have just the one word name of Anonymous, while regular procedures are followed for the name of the work. 
In all other instances of no author listed, the in-text citation includes the title (which changes the sequence within a citation so that the lead position is the name of the unauthored work, both for the in-text citation and alphabetically within the reference list), along with the year of publication.  If the work has a lengthy title, you can shorten it only for the in-text citation, while the reference list must display the full title spelled out in its entirety.  If the title of a work without an author is required to be italiczied within the reference list, then that title (or short title) should be italicized everytime it is used as an in-text citation. If the ttitle of a work with no author is not italicized in the reference list, then you must use double quotations marks around the title (or short title) for the in-text citations.

Reference List

Book with one or more author

Koger, S. M. (2010). The psychology of environmental problems : psychology for sustainability (3rd ed.). Psychology Press.

Book compiled by editor

Schulian, J. (Ed.). (2019). The great American sports page: A century of classic columns from Ring Lardner to Sally Jenkins. Library of America.

Book editions

Herndon, D. (2018). Total burn care  (5th ed.). Elsevier.

Book chapter in an edited book

Nixon, A. E, & Spector P. E. (2014). The impact of technology on employee stress, health, and well-being. In M. D. Coovert & L. F. Thompson (Eds.), The psychology of worklplace technology (pp. 238-260). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Dictionary entry

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Culture. In dictionary. Retrieved September 9, 2020, from

Facebook Post

News From Science. (2019, June 21).Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system--and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.

Government report

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Services, National Institute of Health

Journal article

Koger, S. M. (2010). Coping with the Deepwater Horizon disaster: An Ecopsychology interview with Deborah Du Nann. Ecopsychology, 2(4), 205-209.

Barber, A. E., & Roehling, M. V. (1993). Job postings and the decision to interview: A verbal protocol analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 845-856.

Newspaper article, no author

Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.


King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream. [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

Television broadcast

Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.


Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it's difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Webpage on a Website

Note: URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed.

Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death.

YouTube video

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube.



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