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Citation Styles: APA

APA, Chicago, CSE (Biology), MLA, Cite Internet Sources, Citation Tools, and Other Citation Styles

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APA (Print)

APA Citation Guide

The American Psychology Association (APA) style is designed for the social & life sciences (e.g. psychology, anthropology, medicine). These examples are adapted from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  The latest print edition is located by the reference desk (Call number: Ref BF 76.7.P83 2010, p193-244).  For more examples, try Purdue's APA Style Guide resource:

Part I outlines how to cite a source within the paper itself where you have quoted, summarized, or paraphrased from the source (also known as an in-text citation)

Part II outlines how to create an list of references, known as a bibliography, at the end of your paper that lists anything you cite.

APA Part I - In-Text

You must cite the source of your information regardless of the type of source: book, journal article, web site, newspaper, blog, etc. The APA uses the author-date method of citation; the last name of the author, year of publication, and page number are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. Below are examples of common in-text citations. 

Citing a work by a single author:

A recent study of stress levels (Brown, 1991) reveals gender related differences in these levels. OR,
In a recent study of stress levels, Brown (1991) discusses gender-related differences in these levels.

Citing a work by two authors:

When a work has two authors, ALWAYS cite both names every time you cite the work in the text of your paper.
In a recent study, Williams and Jones (1984) found...

Citing a work by three, four, or five authors:

When a work has three, four, or five authors cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." and the year it was published.

[FIRST CITATION] Jones, Brown, Williams, and Smith (1991) found, in a recent study...

[SUBSEQUENT CITATIONS] Jones et al. (1991) found that...

Citing a work by six or more authors

When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year it was published for the first and subsequent citations. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. and the year it was published.
Kisangau et al. (2011) found...

Citing a work without authors

When a work does not have an author, use the editor or organization name instead if it is available. When it has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page and italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure, or a report.
... on free care ("Study Finds," 2007)
... the book College Bound Seniors (2008)
... a study by the National Kidney and Transplant Division of Urology (1999) shows...

Citing specific parts of a source

To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in text. Always give page numbers for quotation (see section 6.03). Note that page, but not chapter, is abbreviated in such text citations.
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015, p.10)
(Dabrowiak, 2017, Chapter 5)
(Forbes and Sanchez-Migallon, 2016, p.256)

APA Part II - References

Note: The second and subsequent lines are indented five spaces.

(1 or more authors)
Reel, J. (2017). Filling up: The psychology of eating. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood.
Edited book
Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Book editions
Wink, J. (2005). Critical pedagogy: Notes from the real world (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Article or chapter in an edited book
(Note: When listing the pages of a chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp." before the numbers: (pp. 1-21). This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except newspapers.)
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issue across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.
Journal article paginated by volume
Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind's eye. Memory and Cognition, 3, 635-647.
Barber, A. E., & Roehling, M. V. (1993). Job postings and the decision to interview: A verbal protocol analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 845-856.
Journal article paginated by issue
Kim, W. Y., & Snider, W. D. (2008). Neuroscience: Overcoming inhibitions. Science, 322(5903), 869-872.
Journal article with DOI
Henderson, J., Arya, R., & Gillespie, P. (2012). Skin graft meshing, over-meshing and cross-meshing. International Journal of Surgery,10(9), 547-550. doi:
Magazine article
Jensen, L. (1993, December 30). What's love got to do with it. Time, 69, 643-644.
Newspaper article, no author
Simpleton, J. (2009, January). Nationalization of government. Speech presented at the Preservation of Democracy Society, Knoxville, TN.
Televison broadcast
Riker, D. (Director). (2005, February 11). The city: La ciudad [Television broadcast]. Alexandria: Public Broadcasting Service.
ERIC document
Jordan, W. J., & Nettles, S. M. (1999). How students invest their time out of school: effects on school engagement, perceptions of life chances, and achievement (Report No. 29). Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED428174)
Internet resource
Unlandherm, F. (1997, May 2). Middle East studies resources. Retrieved August 19, 1997 from
Arab Republic of Egypt. (1997, June 1). Retrieved August 18, 1997 from
Other examples
For other examples visit Purdue's Owl citation tool:


Zotero is a free, open source browser app that collects, manages, cites, and shares your research sources. It lives right in your web browser, and has a similar design to the iTunes library. 

For help with Zotero contact:
John Repplinger 503-370-6525
Bill Kelm,, 503-375-5332