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Citation Styles: APA

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APA (Print)

APA Citation Guide

The American Psychology Association (APA) style is designed for the social & life sciences (e.g. psychology, anthropology, medicine). These examples are adapted from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  The latest print edition is located by the reference desk (Call number: Ref BF 76.7.P83 2010, p193-244).  For more examples, try Purdue's APA Style Guide resource: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/

Part I outlines how to cite a source within the paper itself where you have quoted, summarized, or paraphrased from the source (also known as an in-text citation)

Part II outlines how to create an list of references, known as a bibliography, at the end of your paper that lists anything you cite.

APA Part I - In-Text

You must cite the source of your information regardless of the type of source: book, journal article, web site, newspaper, blog, etc. The APA uses the author-date method of citation; the last name of the author, year of publication, and page number are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. Below are examples of common in-text citations. 

Citing a work by a single author:

A recent study of stress levels (Brown, 1991) reveals gender related differences in these levels. OR,
In a recent study of stress levels, Brown (1991) discusses gender-related differences in these levels.

Citing a work by two authors:

When a work has two authors, ALWAYS cite both names every time you cite the work in the text of your paper.
In a recent study, Williams and Jones (1984) found...

Citing a work by three, four, or five authors:

When a work has three, four, or five authors cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." and the year it was published.

[FIRST CITATION] Jones, Brown, Williams, and Smith (1991) found, in a recent study...

[SUBSEQUENT CITATIONS] Jones et al. (1991) found that...

Citing a work by six or more authors

When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year it was published for the first and subsequent citations. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. and the year it was published.
Kisangau et al. (2011) found...

Citing a work without authors

When a work does not have an author, use the editor or organization name instead if it is available. When it has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page and italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure, or a report.
... on free care ("Study Finds," 2007)
... the book College Bound Seniors (2008)
... a study by the National Kidney and Transplant Division of Urology (1999) shows...

Citing specific parts of a source

To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation at the appropriate point in text. Always give page numbers for quotation (see section 6.03). Note that page, but not chapter, is abbreviated in such text citations.
(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015, p.10)
(Dabrowiak, 2017, Chapter 5)
(Forbes and Sanchez-Migallon, 2016, p.256)

APA Part II - References

Note: The second and subsequent lines are indented five spaces.

Book (1 or more authors)
Reel, J. (2017). Filling up: The psychology of eating. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood.
Edited book
Alexy, A., & Cook, E. (Eds.). (2019). Intimate Japan: Ethnographies of closeness and conflict. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Book editions
Wink, J. (2005). Critical pedagogy: Notes from the real world (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Article or chapter in an edited book
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issue across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.
Journal article paginated by volume
(Note: The "pp." abbreviation for page numbers are NOT included for journal articles.)
Afzal, S., & Jami, H. (2018). Prevalence of Academic Procrastination and Reasons for Academic Procrastination in University Students. Journal of Behavioural Sciences, 28(1), 51–69.
Sancakoglu, S., & Sayar, M. K. (2012). Relation between socioeconomic status and depression, anxiety, and self-esteem in early adolescents. Yeni Symposium, 50(4), 207-220.
Journal article paginated by issue
Kim, W. Y., & Snider, W. D. (2008). Neuroscience: Overcoming inhibitions. Science, 322(5903), 869-872.
Journal article with more than seven authors
Popova, F., Kovacheva, A., & Garov, P., Sirakov, S., ... Velkova, K. G. (2018). Adult brain activation during visual learning and memory tasks: An experimental approach to translational neuroscience. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 24(4), 864-868.
 
Journal article with DOI
 
Polman, H., de Castro, B.O., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2008). Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus watching violent video games on children's aggressive behavior.  Aggressive Behavior, 34(3), 256-264. doi:10.1002/ab.20245
Magazine article
Ansari, A., & Alter, C. (2015). Love in the age of like. TIME Magazine, 185(22), 40-46. 
Newspaper article, no author
 
Vora, S. (2018, February 18). Steps to move past a language barrier. New York Times, p.2. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=12806330.
Television broadcast
Riker, D. (Director). (2005, February 11). The city: La ciudad [Television broadcast]. Alexandria: Public Broadcasting Service.
 
Speech
Simpleton, J. (2009, January). Nationalization of government. Speech presented at the Preservation of Democracy Society, Knoxville, TN.
ERIC document
Jordan, W. J., & Nettles, S. M. (1999). How students invest their time out of school: effects on school engagement, perceptions of life chances, and achievement (Report No. 29). Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED428174)
Internet resource
Zimmerman, K. A. (2014). Memory definition and types of memory. Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com/43713-memory.html
 
Internet resource, no author and no date
Shoulder injury prevention factsheet: HS05-033C (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.tdi.texas.gov/pubs/videoresource/fspreventingsho.pdf
Other examples
For other examples visit Purdue's Owl citation tool: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Zotero

 

Zotero is a free, open source browser app that collects, manages, cites, and shares your research sources. It lives right in your web browser, and has a similar design to the iTunes library. 

For help with Zotero contact:
Bill Kelm, bkelm@willamette.edu or
John Repplinger, jrepplin@willamette.edu