Learn tools that will make citing resources much easier when using the library catalog, library databases, and Google Scholar. Also discover, Zotero, a free resource for managing citations/bibliographic data. Additional information is available on the Why Cite Sources page.
The American Psychology Association (APA) is designed for the social & life sciences such as psychology, anthropology, medicine. The manual is available at the reference desk (call #: Ref BF76.7.P83 2020).
A recent study of stress levels (Brown, 2018) reveals...
In a recent study of stress levels, Brown (2018) discusses...
Research by Williams and Jones (2020) found...
... was found to have a high correlation (Williams & Jones, 2020)...
Three or more authors
(Taylor et al., 2018)
Kisangau et al. (2019) found...
Consider whether a group or organization is the author. A work is treated as having no author when its author is unknown or cannot be reasonably be determined. Instead, use the first few words of the title of the work in place of the author.
... on free care (Study Finds, 2016)
... the book College Bound Seniors (2019)
... the Kidney Dialysis Report by the National Kidney and Transplant Division of Urology (2020) shows...
If, and only if, the work is signed "Anonymous," use "Anonymous" as the author.
Anonymous (2017) stated...
Content generated by A.I. is nonrecoverable; it cannot be retrieved or linked to later, therefore it must be cited differently.
(Open AI, 2023)
As paraphrased from ChatGPT (2023) or generated by ChatGPT
The reference list is organized alphabetically typically by the author's last name, followed by additional info that describe the source to help readers locate the item. The following examples are the most commonly referenced types of sources.
Book with one or more author
Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.
Book compiled by editor
Schulian, J. (2019). The great American sports page: A century of classic columns from Ring Lardner to Sally Jenkins. Library of America.
Herndon, D. (2018). Total burn care (5th ed.). Elsevier.
Book chapter in an edited book
Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345-359). American Psychological Association.
OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Culture. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved September 9, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture
News From Science. (2019, June 21).Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system--and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/photos/a.117532185107/10156268057260108/?type=3&theater
National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Services, National Institute of Health https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf
Joly, J. F., Stapel, D. A., & Lindenberg, S. M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047-1056. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208318401
Barber, A. E., & Roehling, M. V. (1993). Job postings and the decision to interview: A verbal protocol analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 845-856.
Newspaper article, no author
Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.
King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream. [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm.
Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.
Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it's difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/1170305718425137152
Webpage on a Website
Note: URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed.
Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/53029-nursing-clinical-brain/view
World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death
Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs
The Modern Language Association (MLA) style is designed for the humanities such as English, Spanish, German. The manual is available at the reference desk: Reference LB2369.M52 2021
You must cite the source of either a quotation or paraphrased material. Include the author's name and the page number(s) from which the material was taken in parentheses following the statement you make. If you mention the author in the text, you do not have to repeat his or her name in the citation. If you cite more than one work by the same author in your paper, you must include a short title to inform the reader of which work you are citing.
Citing in text by paraphrasing:
In A Critical History of American Literature David Lynch provides a useful discussion of the Romantics (538-89), as well as authors from other periods.
Citing in text by paraphrasing:
In the 1990s, media coverage of police brutality reached an all time high (Marshall 6).
Citing in text by quoting:
The author has described this era to be "the most turbulent in modern history" (Brown 21).
Citing in text by quoting:
In "The Threshold of the Mountain in Dante's Divine Comedy," Helen Luke notes that "almost daily this great image of Dante's passage from the blind murk to the shining dark may come to our aid"(55).
Citing in text by ChatGPT:
(paraphrased from ChatGPT) or (generated by ChatGPT).
Book, Single author
Pollak, Vivian R. Dickinson: The Anxiety of Gender. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1984.
Book, Multiple authors
Holman, C. Hugh and William Harman. A Handbook to Literature. New York: Macmillan, 1992.
Reference Book Article
"Mandarin." Encyclopedia Americana. 1980 ed.
Journal Article with continuous pagination
Spear, Karen. "Building Cognitive Skills in Basic Writers." Teaching English in the Two-Year College 9 (1983): 91-98.
Journal Article that uses only issue numbers or pages
Lyon, George Ella. "Contemporary Appalachian Poetry: Sources and Directions." Kentucky Review 2.2 (1981): 3-22.
Journal Article, Weekly or biweekly
Begley, Sharon. "A Healthy Dose of Laughter." Newsweek 4 Oct. 1982: 60-88.
Journal Article, Monthly or bimonthly
Snyder, Mark. "Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes." Psychology Today July 1982: 60-88.
Collin, Glenn. "Single-Father Survey Finds Adjustment a Problem." New York Times 21 Nov. 1983, late ed.: B17.
Author/editor. Title. Edition statement (if given). Place of publication: publisher, date. Medium. Source of electronic information (if available). Available: URL. Access date.
Unlandherm, Frank. Middle East studies resources . New York: Columbia University, 1997. Online. Columbia University: Available: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/libraries/indiv/area/MiddleEast/index.html. 19 August 1997.
Arab republic of Egypt. Austin, TX: Center for Middle East Studies, 1 June 1997. Online. Middle East Network Information Center. Available: http://menic.utexas.edu/menic/countries/egypt.html. 18 August 1997.
Describe the symbolism of the green light in the book The Great Gatsby by Scott Fitzgerald prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 8 Mar. 2023, chat.openai.com/chat
For other examples of citing Internet resources see: The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. (Ref. LB 2369 .G53 2003) sections 5.9 (page 207), sections 6.4 (page 242).