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The Writing Center offers individual appointments with a writing consultant. Writing Center Consultants will give honest feedback about where the writing confuses them, or loses them, particularly interests them, leaves them needing additional explanation or support, and the like. They can help writers to organize their arguments more effectively by asking them, for example, what the organizing principle at work in the current draft is.
The Modern Language Association (MLA) style is designed for the humanities (e.g. English, Spanish, German). These examples are adapted from the MLA Handbook for Writers of
Research Papers and provides examples of how
to document source material when preparing scholarly papers. Printed copies of the MLA Handbook are located
in the citation manual collection by the reference
desk (Call number: Reference LB2369.G53 2003).
You will need to cite your sources in two places within your
paper: in-text and bibliography Part I outlines how to cite a source in the paragraph where
you have quoted, summarized, or paraphrased from the source (called an
Part II outlines how to create an list of
references, known as a bibliography, at the end of your paper that lists
anything you cite.
MLA Part I
PART I- CITATIONS IN TEXT
You must cite the source of either a quotation or paraphrased
material. Include the author's name and the page number(s) from which
the material was taken in parentheses following the statement you make.
If you mention the author in the text, you do not have to repeat his or
her name in the citation. If you cite more than one work by the same
author in your paper, you must include a short title to inform the
reader of which work you are citing.
Citing author in text:
In A Critical History of American Literature David Lynch
provides a useful discussion of the Romantics (538-89), as well as
authors from other periods.
Citing author in reference:
The author has described this era to be "the most turbulent in
modern history" (Brown 21).
Citing author in text:
In "The Threshold of the Mountain in Dante's Divine Comedy," Helen
Luke notes that "almost daily this great image of Dante's passage from
the blind murk to the shining dark may come to our aid"(55).
Citing author in reference:
In the 1990s, media coverage of police brutality reached an all
time high (Marshall 6).
MLA Part II
PART II - REFERENCES
Book by a single author:
Pollak, Vivian R. Dickinson: The Anxiety of Gender. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1984.
Book by multiple authors:
Holman, C. Hugh and William Harman. A Handbook to Literature. New York: Macmillan, 1992.
Article in a reference book:
"Mandarin." Encyclopedia Americana. 1980 ed.
Article in a journal with continuous pagination:
Spear, Karen. "Building Cognitive Skills in Basic Writers." Teaching English in the Two-Year College 9 (1983): 91-98.
Article in a journal that pages each issue separately or that uses only issue numbers:
Lyon, George Ella. "Contemporary Appalachian Poetry: Sources and Directions." Kentucky Review 2.2 (1981): 3-22.
Article from a weekly or biweekly periodical:
Begley, Sharon. "A Healthy Dose of Laughter." Newsweek 4 Oct. 1982: 60-88.
Article from a monthly or bimonthly periodical:
Snyder, Mark. "Self-Fulfilling Stereotypes." Psychology Today July 1982: 60-88.
An article from a daily newspaper:
Collin, Glenn. "Single-Father Survey Finds Adjustment a Problem." New York Times 21 Nov. 1983, late ed.: B17.
Basic citation components and punctuation for individual works
Author/editor. Title. Edition statement (if given). Place of publication: publisher, date. Medium. Source of electronic information (if available). Available: URL. Access date.
Unlandherm, Frank. Middle East studies resources . New York: Columbia University, 1997. Online. Columbia University: Available: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/libraries/indiv/area/MiddleEast/index.html. 19 August 1997.
Arab republic of Egypt. Austin, TX: Center for Middle East Studies, 1 June 1997. Online. Middle East Network Information Center. Available: http://menic.utexas.edu/menic/countries/egypt.html. 18 August 1997.
For other examples of citing Internet resources see:
The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (Ref. LB 2369 .G53 2003) sections 5.9 (page 207), sections 6.4 (page 242) and the index for further specific electronic citation questions.
Zotero is a reference manager designed to store, manage, and cite bibliographic references, such as books and articles. It also is a powerful tool for collecting, organizing, and sharing research information and sources.
This free, open source tool works with Macs and PCs (a beta version for Chromebooks has recently been released). Download both desktop and browser extension for it to work with Google Docs and MS Word. References also can be copied and pasted.