The Writing Center offers individual appointments with a writing consultant. Writing Center Consultants will give honest feedback about where the writing confuses them, or loses them, particularly interests them, leaves them needing additional explanation or support, and the like. They can help writers to organize their arguments more effectively by asking them, for example, what the organizing principle at work in the current draft is.
Schedule an appointment, view student associates, and view hours. Support for students whose home language is not English will also be provided.
The American Psychology Association (APA) is designed for the social & life sciences (e.g. psychology, anthropology, medicine).
The APA style manual proscribes 2 different sets of rules: one for IN TEXT citations, and the other for the REFERENCE LIST (which appears only at the end of your work). The examples shown below are for both formats and come from the newest version of this APA style manual, the 7th edition, published in 2020.
These in-text examples use the APA author-date method of citation; the author's last name and year of publication are inserted within the text of the paper and refer to the reference list at the end of the work.
The reference list is organized alphabetically typically by the author's last name, followed by additional info that describe the source to help readers locate the item. The following examples are the most commonly referenced types of sources.
Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.
Schulian, J. (2019). The great American sports page: A century of classic columns from Ring Lardner to Sally Jenkins. Library of America.
Herndon, D. (2018). Total burn care
Aron, L., Botella, M., & Lubart, T. (2019). Culinary arts: Talent and their development. In R. Subotnik, P. Olszewski-Kubilius, & F. C. Worrell (Eds.), The psychology of high performance: Developing human potential into domain-specific talent (pp. 345-359). American Psychological Association.
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Culture. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved September 9, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture
News From Science. (2019, June 21).Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system--and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/photos/a.117532185107/10156268057260108/?type=3&theater
National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Services, National Institute of Health https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/takingtime.pdf
Images (note: site name or museum location may be used)
National Institutes of Health. (2015). No 7 diabetic foot [3D print model ID 3DPX-001560]. NIH 3D Print Exchange https://3dprint.nih.gov/discover/3dpx-001560
van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY, United States. https://www.moma.org/collection/works/79802
Joly, J. F., Stapel, D. A., & Lindenberg, S. M. (2008). Silence and table manners: When environments activate norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1047-1056. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208318401
Barber, A. E., & Roehling, M. V. (1993). Job postings and the decision to interview: A verbal protocol analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 845-856.
Hess, A. (2019, January 3). Cats who take direction. The New York Times, C1.
King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream. [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm.
Barris, K. (Writer & Director). (2017, January 11). Lemons (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In K. Barris, J. Groff, A. Anderson, E. B. Dobbins, L. Fishburne, & H. Sugland (Executive Producers), Black-ish Wilmore Films; Artists First; Cinema Gypsy Productions; ABC Studios.
Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2019, September 7). Today, it's difficult for researchers to diagnose #Alzheimers patients early enough to intervene. A reliable, easy and accurate diagnostic would [Thumbnail with link attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/1170305718425137152
Note: URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed.
Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from https://www.oercommons.org/authoring/53029-nursing-clinical-brain/view
World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death
Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs
Zotero is a reference manager designed to store, manage, and cite bibliographic references, such as books and articles. It also is a powerful tool for collecting, organizing, and sharing research information and sources.
This free, open source tool works with Macs and PCs (a beta version for Chromebooks has recently been released). Download both desktop and browser extension for it to work with Google Docs and MS Word. References also can be copied and pasted.
Setup instructions and more info at:
For help contact:
Bill Kelm, firstname.lastname@example.org or
John Repplinger, email@example.com