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BIOL 125: Ecology, Evolution, and Diversity: CSE Style (Biology)

CSE (Print)


Parentheses are placed around the author's surname and year of publication. 
Quotes are rarely used in scientific publications.


Single author
The NIH has called for a change in smallpox vaccination policy (Fauci 2002) that...
Two authors
When a work has 2 authors, give both names and separate them by "and" plus the year in between parentheses. If the authors have the same surname, include their first initials.
In a recent study (Williams and Jones 2013) found...
In a recent study (Williams T and Williams B 2013) found...
Three or more authors
When a work has more than two authors, give only the first author's name followed by "et al." and the publication year.
... but later studies (Ito et al. 2014) established that...
Corporations or organizations as authors
If the author is an organization, committee, or corporation, a shortened form may be created for the in-text reference to avoid interrupting the text with a long string of words. Use the initial letters of each part of the name or a readily recognizable abbreviation.  Include your abbreviation in square brachets for your reference list.
The landmark report on legalized abortion ([IOM] 1975) was...
No author
If the author cannot be determined, do not use "anonymous."  Instead, substitute it with an organization name if one is available.  And if there is no organization, use the first word or few words of the title, followed by ellipsis. Only use enough words of the title to distinguish it from other titles. 
Drug dosage recommendations for elderly patients (Handbook... 2000) depart from...
No date
Occasionally it is not possible to determine any date associated with a publication.  If the document was found online, use the date you viewed it instead.  Alternatively for print publications, place the words "date unknown" within square brackets. 
Only one study (Hamilton 2014) relating the adverse effects of hormone...
Only one study (Hamilton [date unknown]) relating the adverse effects of...


The reference list is located at the end of a document under the heading "Reference," "Cited References," Literature Cited," or "Bibliography." It alphabetically lists and matches the sources cited within the text, including tables and figures.

Articles (1 to 10 Authors)
Pierce JP, Messer K, White MM, Cowling DW, Thomas DP. 2011. Prevalence of heavy smoking in California and the United States, 1965-2007. JAMA 305(11): 1106-1112.
Article (11 or More Authors)
Edmunds W, Pebody R, Aggerback H, Baron S, Berbers G, Conyn-Van SM, Hallander H, Olander R, Maple P, De Melker H, et al. 2000. The sero-epidemiology of diptheria in Western Europe. Epidemiol Infect 125(1):113-25.
Article (From Internet)
Halford NG, Curtis TY, Muttucumaru N, Postles J, Mottram DS. 2011. Sugars in crop plants. Ann Appl Biol [Internet] [cited 2014 Feb 2]; 158(1):1-25. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2010.00443.x
Blog Post
Salopek P. 2014 Apr 17. The river door [blog post]. Out of Eden walk: dispatches from the field from Paul Salopek. [assessed 2014 May 19].
McCormac JS, Kennedy G. 2004. Birds of Ohio. Auburn (WA): Lone Pine.
Book Chapters
Cantrill J. 1996. Gold, Yellowstone, and the search for a rhetorical identity. In Herndl C, Brown S, editors. Green culture: environmental rhetoric in contemporary America. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Press. p. 166-194.
Book with Editors
Herndl CG, Brown SC, editors. 1996. Green culture: environmental rhetoric in contemporary America. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Press.
Book with no Author
CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. c2008. Cleveland (OH): CRC Press.
CD, DVD, or Blu-ray Disc
NOVA: secrets beneath the ice [DVD]. Seifferlein B, editor; Hochman G, producer. Boston (MA): WGBH Educational Foundation; 2010. 1 DVD: 52 min.
Williams R, Johnson P. 2008. Genetic policing: the use of DNA in chemical investigations [Internet]. Portland (OR): Willan Publishing; [cited 2014 Sept 30]. Available from NetLibrary:
Conference Proceeding
Clarke A, Crame JA. 2003. Importance of historical processes in global patterns of diversity. In: Blackburn TM, Gaston KJ, editors. Macroecology: concepts and consequences. Proceedings of the 43rd annual symposium of the British Ecological Society; 2002 Apr 17-19; Birmingham. Malden (MA): Blackwell.
Encyclopedia Entry (Print)
Robertson MP. 2009. Origins of life: emergence of the RNA world. In: Wiley encyclopedia of chemical biology. Vol. 3. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons. p. 517-28.
Red blood clot. Encyclopedia Britannica Online [Internet] [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Images from Print Resource
Bronze MS, Greenfield RA. 2005. Biodefense: principles and pathogens. Norfolk: England.
Newspaper Article
Azar B, Martin S. 1999 Oct. APA's Council of Representatives endorses new standards for testing, high school psychology [Internet]. APA Monitor. [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Online Video
Life: creatures of the deep: nemertean worms and sea starts [video]. 2010 Ma 21, 2:55 min. Gunton M, executive producers; Holmes M, series producers. [accessed 2011 Feb 4]. 
Mirsky, S, host; Conrad N, interviewee. 2011 Feb 17, 19:26 min. The spirit of innovation: from high school to the moon [podcast]. Sci Am. [accessed 2021 Oct 1].
Technical Reports (Govern. Publications)
Ford PL, Fagerlund RA, Duszynski DW, Polechla PJ. 2004. Fleas and lice of mammals in New Mexico. Fort Collins (CO): USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. General Technical Report NR RMRS-GTR-123.
Dettmers JM. 1995. Assessing the trophic cascade in reservoirs: the role of an introduced predator [dissertation]. Columbus (OH): Ohio State University.
Website (Government websites)
Bush G. 1989 Apr 12. Principles of ethical conduct for government officers and employees [Internet]. Executive Order 12674. Part 1 [cited 2014 Feb 20]. Available from
Website (No author)
Substitute the author with one of these alternatives and in this order:
Organization name, Document title, or Page title.
[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture [Internet]. 2004. USDA announces first steps to update biotechnology regulations [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Website (No publication date)
Substitute the publication date with the access date -- the date which you viewed the website.
APHIS. APHIS Hot issues [Internet] [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Website (Personal site)
APSnet: plant pathology online [Internet]. c1994-2005. St. Paul (MN):American Phytopathological Association; [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from
Website (Professional organizations)
Medtext, Inc [Internet]. 2008. Hypertension, dialysis and clinical nephrology - kidney [cited 2014 Sept 19]. Available from

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