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The U.S. Census Bureau is the leading source of statistical information about the nation’s people. Our population statistics come from decennial censuses, which count the entire U.S. population every ten years, along with several other surveys.
The Census Bureau reports poverty data from several major household surveys & programs. The Annual Social & Economic Supplement (ASEC) & Current Population Survey (CPS) is the source of official national poverty estimates. The American Community Survey (ACS) provides single & multi-year estimates for smaller areas. The Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program provides model-based poverty estimates for counties and school districts.
The Survey of Income & Program Participation (SIPP) provides longitudinal estimates.