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Citation Styles: Cite Internet Sources

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Online Style (Print)

Citing Internet Resources

This guide fills in the gaps of other style guides when dealing with online resources, so if your other styles guide doesn't mention how to cite an online source, try this. The following are examples of how to cite commonly used Internet Sources.

These are suggestions based on the commonly used APA and MLA style guides, as interpreted in Electronic Style: a handbook for citing electronic information by Nancy Crane and Xia Li. The print edition of this guide is located in the citation manual collection by the reference desk (Call number: Reference PN171.F56 L5 1996).

Additional sources for guidance and examples are available (see below for details). Please ask at the Hatfield Library Reference Desk for additional assistance.

Citing Internet Examples

Internet Sources

APA Style

    Author/editor. (Year, month day). Title. Retrieved (Access date), from (complete URL).
    Unlandherm, F. (1997, May 2). Middle East studies resources. Retrieved August 19, 1997 from

    Arab republic of Egypt. (1997, June 1). Retrieved August 18, 1997 from

MLA Style

    Author/editor. Title. Edition statement (if given). Place of publication: publisher, date. Medium. Source of electronic information (if available). Available: URL. Access date.
    Unlandherm, Frank. Middle East studies resources . New York: Columbia University, 1997. Online. Columbia University: Available: 19 August 1997.

    Arab Republic of Egypt. Austin, TX: Center for Middle East Studies, 1 June 1997. Online. Middle East Network Information Center. Available: 18 August 1997.

Discussion Group Messages

APA Style

    Author. (Year, Month day). Subject or title of message. [Message number](if available) Message posted to (URL or online address).
    Johnston, David. (1997, August 16). Trek's enemies do have meaning [Msg. 11]. Message posted to USENET: rec.arts.startrek.current.

    Ripp, G. Iva. (1997, August 18). Periodical usage of periods in electronic periodicals. Message posted to SERIALST electronic mailing list, archived at

MLA Style

    Author. "Subject of Message." Date. Online posting. Discussion List. (if available) Available E-mail/USENET: address. Access date.
    Johnston. David. "Trek's enemies do have meaning." 16 August 1997. Online posting. Available USENET: rec.arts.startrek.current. 18 August 1997.

    Ripp, G. Iva. "Periodical usage of periods in electronic periodicals." 18 August 1997. SERIALST. Online posting. Available E-mail: 18 August 1997.

E-mail Messages

APA Style

According to current APA rules, email messages are cited parenthetically in the text as a personal communication, but are not included in the reference list.

    Sender (personal communication, Month day, year)
    Barleycorn, John (personal communication, July 21, 1993) or

    (John Barleycorn, personal communication, July 21, 1993)

MLA Style

    Sender. "Subject of Message." E-mail to (recipient). Date month year.
    Barleycorn, John. "Evils of overindulgence." E-mail to Ted Kennedy. 21 July 1993.


Additional Resources

Janice Walker and Todd Taylor's The Columbia Guide to Online Style (adjacent to the Reference Desk, call number REF PN171 .F56 W35 1998) and APA

Print Guides (Located adjacent to the Reference Desk)


Li, Xi and Nancy B. Crane. Electronic style: a handbook for citing electronic information. Medford, N.J.: Information Today, 1996. REF PN171.F56 L5 1996.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA handbook for writers of research papers. 6th ed. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2003. REF LB 2369 .G53 2003. 
(See section 5.9, pages 207-235 for citing e-sources)

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001. REF BF 76.7 .P83 2001.
(See pages 268-281 for citing e-sources)



Zotero is a free, open source browser app that collects, manages, cites, and shares your research sources. It lives right in your web browser, and has a similar design to the iTunes library. 

For help with Zotero contact:
Bill Kelm, or
John Repplinger,