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Review & Primary Research Articles Examples: Home

Test your knowledge. Figure out which ones are review articles, and which are primary (original) research articles.

Test yourself!

Here are some abstracts (summaries) of some articles.

This is not graded; it only tests your knowledge!

Which are primary (original) research articles and review articles?

Example I


The Golgi apparatus (GA) is a cytoplasmic organelle that is of great interest to all scientists for its key role in the biosynthesis, transporting and sorting of both lipids and proteins located at the intersection of the secretory and endocytic pathways. Recently, more and more evidence shows that changes in the Golgi apparatus play an important role in the clinical progression and pathological development of many diseases. In this review, we will summarize the alteration of the Golgi apparatus in blood cells and anti-Golgi complex antibodies in blood serum under different conditions and further clarify the contribution of the Golgi apparatus dysfunction to the course of these diseases and its pathophysiological basis, which will significantly improve our understanding and impact our ability to develop more effective therapies for these diseases.

Is this a primary research article or a review article?

Example I
Review Article: 265 votes (57.24%)
Primary (original) Research Article: 164 votes (35.42%)
Not sure. Show me more about the article.: 34 votes (7.34%)
Total Votes: 463

Example II

Islet allografts from donor mice exposed to CO are protected from immune rejection after transplantation via the suppression of membrane trafficking/activation of TLR4 in islets/beta cells. The molecular mechanisms of how CO suppresses TLR4 activation in beta cells remain unclear and are the focus of this study. Cells of the insulinoma cell line, betaTC3, were stably transfected with pcDNA3-TLR4-YFP and pDsRed-Monomer-Golgi plasmids and used to identify the subcellular distribution of TLR4 before and after LPS stimulation by confocal microscopy. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that TLR4 mainly resides in the Golgi apparatus in betaTC3 cells when in a quiescent state. LPS stimulation led to a rapid trafficking of TLR4 from the Golgi to the cell membrane. Physical interaction between TLR4 and myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Depleting MD-2 using small interfering RNA or blocking the N-glycosylation of cells using tunicamycin blocked membrane trafficking of TLR4. Pre-exposing cells to CO at a concentration of 250 parts per million suppressed membrane trafficking of TLR4 via inhibiting its glycosylation and the interaction between TLR4 and MD-2. In conclusion, MD-2 is required for the glycosylation of TLR4 and its consequent membrane trafficking in betaTC3 cells. CO suppresses membrane activation of TLR4 via blocking its glycosylation and the physical interaction between TLR4 and MD-2.

Is this a primary research article or a review article?

Example II
Review Article: 47 votes (16.85%)
Primary (original) Research Article: 215 votes (77.06%)
Not sure. Show me more about the article.: 17 votes (6.09%)
Total Votes: 279

Example III


Recent advances in the cell biology of RNA silencing have unraveled an intriguing association of post-transcriptionally regulated RNA with endolysosomal membranes in several circumstances of mRNA localization, microRNA activity and viral RNA transport and packaging. Endolysosomal membranes are a nexus of communication and transport between cells and their exterior environment for signaling receptors, pathogens and nutrients. Here, we discuss recent data that support a view that endolysosomal positioning of RNA might facilitate intercellular transmission of RNA and host defence against viruses and retrotransposons. Positioning of RNA regulatory mechanisms on endolysosomal membranes might permit rapid and localized control of microRNA (miRNA) gene regulatory programs and mRNA translation in response to environmental signals, such as activated plasma membrane receptors transported on endosomes. Finally, we suggest that the pathology of several conditions, including Huntington's disease, might be a consequence of the disruption of the control of RNA via endolysosomal membranes.

Is this a primary research article or a review article?

Example III
Review Article: 114 votes (59.38%)
Primary (original) Research Article: 61 votes (31.77%)
Not sure. Show me more about the article.: 17 votes (8.85%)
Total Votes: 192

Example IV


One way animals may cope with nutrient deprivation is to broadly repress translation by inhibiting 5'-cap initiation. However, under these conditions specific proteins remain essential to survival during fasting. Such peptides may be translated through initiation at 5'UTR Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRES). Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster Forkhead box type O (dFoxO) transcription factor is required for adult survival during fasting, and that the 5'UTR of dfoxO has the ability to initiate IRES-mediated translation in cell culture. Previous work has shown that insulin negatively regulates dFoxO through AKT-mediated phosphorylation while dFoxO itself induces transcription of the insulin receptor dInR, which also harbors IRES. Here we report that IRES-mediated translation of both dFoxO and dInR is activated in fasted Drosophila S2 cells at a time when cap-dependent translation is reduced. IRES mediated translation of dFoxO and dInR may be essential to ensure function and sensitivity of the insulin signaling pathway during fasting.

Is this a primary research article or a review article?

Example IV
Review Article: 43 votes (23.76%)
Primary (original) Research Article: 122 votes (67.4%)
Not sure. Show me more about the article.: 16 votes (8.84%)
Total Votes: 181

Subject Guide

John Repplinger's picture
John Repplinger
Mark O. Hatfield Library
900 State Street,
Salem Or 97304