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Citation Styles: APA

APA, Chicago, CSE (Biology), MLA, Cite Internet Sources, Citation Tools, and Other Citation Styles

Writing Center

  
   

Having problems writing your paper?  The Writing Center offers individual appointments with a writing consultant. Writing Center Consultants will give honest feedback about where the writing confuses them, or loses them, particularly interests them, leaves them needing additional explanation or support, and the like. They can help writers to organize their arguments more effectively by asking them, for example, what the organizing principle at work in the current draft is.

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Support for students whose home language is not English will also be provided. Appointments are available for signup on the WISE site, Writing Center, with those of all other consultants.  Print forms are available in the Writing Center (Ford 105)

LOCATION
The Writing Center is located on the ground floor of Ford Hall (Room 105). 

APA (Print)

APA Citation Guide

The American Psychology Association (APA) style is designed for the social & life sciences (e.g. psychology, anthropology, medicine). These examples are adapted from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  The print edition is located in the citation manual collection by the reference desk (Call number: Ref BF 76.7.P83 2010, p193-244).

You will need to cite your sources in two places within your paper: in-text and bibliography
Part I outlines how to cite a source in the paragraph where you have quoted, summarized, or paraphrased from the source (called an in-text citation)

Part II outlines how to create an list of references, known as a bibliography, at the end of your paper that lists anything you cite.

For more examples, use Purdue's APA Style Guide resource: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/

APA Part I

PART I- CITATIONS IN TEXT

You must cite the source of either a quotation or paraphrased material, regardless of the type of source: book, magazine or journal article, newspapers, etc. The APA uses the author-date method of citation; that is, the last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.


Citing a work by a single author:

A recent study of stress levels (Brown, 1991) reveals gender related differences in these levels. OR,
In a recent study of stress levels, Brown (1991) discusses gender-related differences in these levels.


Citing a work by two authors:

When a work has two authors, ALWAYS cite both names every time you cite the work in the text of your paper.

In a recent study, Williams and Jones (1984) found...


Citing a work by three, four, or five authors:

When a work has three, four, or five authors cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." and the year it was published.

[FIRST CITATION] Jones, Brown, Williams, and Smith (1991) found, in a recent study...

[SUBSEQUENT CITATIONS] Jones et al. (1991) found that...


Citing a work by six or more authors

When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year it was published for the first and subsequent citations. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. and the year it was published.

Kisangau et al. (2011) found...


Citing a work without authors

When a work does not have an author, use the editor or organization name instead if it is available. When it has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page and italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure, or a report.

... on free care ("Study Finds," 2007)
... the book College Bound Seniors (2008)
... a study by the National Kidney and Transplant Division of Urology (1999) shows...

APA Part II

PART II - REFERENCES

Note: The second and subsequent lines of a citation should be indented five spaces.

Book
(1 or more authors)
Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.) New York: MacMillan.
Edited book
Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger.
Book editions
Wink, J. (2005). Critical pedagogy: Notes from the real world (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Article or chapter in an edited book
Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L.W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Journal article paginated by volume
Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind's eye. Memory and Cognition, 3, 635-647.
Barber, A. E., & Roehling, M. V. (1993). Job postings and the decision to interview: A verbal protocol analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 845-856.
Journal article paginated by issue
Kim, W. Y., & Snider, W. D. (2008). Neuroscience: Overcoming inhibitions. Science, 322(5903), 869-872.
Journal article with DOI
Henderson, J., Arya, R., & Gillespie, P. (2012). Skin graft meshing, over-meshing and cross-meshing. International Journal of Surgery,10(9), 547-550. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2012.08.013
Magazine article
Jensen, L. (1993, December 30). What's love got to do with it. Time, 69, 643-644.
Newspaper article, no author
Simpleton, J. (2009, January). Nationalization of government. Speech presented at the Preservation of Democracy Society, Knoxville, TN.
Televison broadcast
Riker, D. (Director). (2005, February 11). The city: La ciudad [Television broadcast]. Alexandria: Public Broadcasting Service.
ERIC document
Jordan, W. J., & Nettles, S. M. (1999). How students invest their time out of school: effects on school engagement, perceptions of life chances, and achievement (Report No. 29). Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED428174)
Internet resource
Unlandherm, F. (1997, May 2). Middle East studies resources. Retrieved August 19, 1997 from http://www.columbia.edu/cu/libraries/indiv/area/MiddleEast/index.html.
Arab Republic of Egypt. (1997, June 1). Retrieved August 18, 1997 from http://menic.utexas.edu/menic/countries/egypt.html.
Other examples
For other examples visit Purdue's Owl citation tool: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

RefWorks Transitioning to Zotero

NOTE: We will transition to Zotero soon after the end of the spring 2017 semester. RefWorks will be available to use throughout the summer and 2017 fall semester, during which time current RefWorks users will be encouraged to transition to Zotero. Our library staff will be able to help with the transition. 

RefWorks is a web-based bibliography management and citation tool. Import references from databases, library catalogs, generic web sites, and more. It converts to hundreds of citation formats quickly and easily. 

Zotero is a free, open source browser app that collects, manages, cites, and shares your research sources. It lives right in your web browser, and has a similar design to the iTunes library. 

 

For help with either RefWorks or Zotero, or questions concerning the transition please contact:
John Repplinger jrepplin@willamette.edu 503-370-6525
Bill Kelm, bkelm@willamette.edu, 503-375-5332