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IDS 101: Pet, Pest, or Pepperoni: APA

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Having problems writing your paper?  The Writing Center offers individual appointments with a writing consultant. Writing Center Consultants will give honest feedback about where the writing confuses them, or loses them, particularly interests them, leaves them needing additional explanation or support, and the like. They can help writers to organize their arguments more effectively by asking them, for example, what the organizing principle at work in the current draft is.

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Support for students whose home language is not English will also be provided. Appointments are available for signup on the WISE site, Writing Center, with those of all other consultants.  Print forms are available in the Writing Center (Ford 105)

APA (Print)

APA Citation Guide

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The American Psychology Association (APA) style is designed for the social & life sciences (e.g. psychology, anthropology, medicine). These examples are adapted from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  The latest print edition is located by the reference desk (Call number: Ref BF 76.7.P83 2010, p193-244).  For more examples, try Purdue's APA Style Guide resource:

Part I outlines how to cite a source within the paper itself where you have quoted, summarized, or paraphrased from the source (also known as an in-text citation)

Part II outlines how to create an list of references, known as a bibliography, at the end of your paper that lists anything you cite.

APA Part I


You must cite the source of either a quotation or paraphrased material, regardless of the type of source: book, magazine or journal article, newspapers, etc. The APA uses the author-date method of citation; that is, the last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.

Citing a work by a single author:
A recent study of stress levels (Brown, 1991) reveals gender related differences in these levels. OR,
In a recent study of stress levels, Brown (1991) discusses gender-related differences in these levels.
Citing a work by two authors:
When a work has two authors, ALWAYS cite both names every time you cite the work in the text of your paper.
In a recent study, Williams and Jones (1984) found...
Citing a work by three, four, or five authors:
When a work has three, four, or five authors cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." and the year it was published.
[FIRST CITATION] Jones, Brown, Williams, and Smith (1991) found, in a recent study...
[SUBSEQUENT CITATIONS] Jones et al. (1991) found that...
Kisangau et al. (2011) found...
Citing a work without authors

When a work does not have an author, use the editor or organization name instead if it is available. When it has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page and italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure, or a report.
... on free care ("Study Finds," 2007)
... the book College Bound Seniors (2008)
... a study by the National Kidney and Transplant Division of Urology (1999) shows...
Citing a work by six or more authors
When a work has six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year it was published for the first and subsequent citations. If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al. and the year it was published.



Book by one or more main authors

Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.) New York: MacMillan.

Edited book

Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C. R. (Eds.). (1980). Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language. New York: Praeger.

Book editions

Wink, J. (2005). Critical pedagogy: Notes from the real world (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Article or chapter in an edited book

Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L.W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Journal article paginated by volume

Paivio, A. (1975). Perceptual comparisons through the mind's eye. Memory and Cognition, 3, 635-647.

Barber, A. E., & Roehling, M. V. (1993). Job postings and the decision to interview: A verbal protocol analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 845-856.

Horowitz, L. M., Post, D. L., French, R. S., Wallis, K. D., & Siegelman, E. Y. (1981). The prototype as a construct in abnormal psychology: Clarifying disagreement in psychiatric judgments. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 575-585.

Journal article paginated by issue

Kim, W. Y., & Snider, W. D. (2008). Neuroscience: Overcoming inhibitions. Science, 322(5903), 869-872.

Magazine article

Jensen, L. (1993, December 30). What's love got to do with it. Time, 69, 643-644.

Newspaper article, no author

Study finds free care used more. (1982, April). APA Monitor, p. 14.


Simpleton, J. (2009, January). Nationalization of government. Speech presented at the Preservation of Democracy Society, Knoxville, TN.

Televison broadcast

Riker, D. (Director). (2005, February 11). The city: La ciudad [Television broadcast]. Alexandria: Public Broadcasting Service.

ERIC document

Jordan, W. J., & Nettles, S. M. (1999). How students invest their time out of school: effects on school engagement, perceptions of life chances, and achievement (Report No. 29). Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED428174)

Internet resource 

Author/editor. (Year, month day). Title. Retrieved (Access date), from (complete URL).

Unlandherm, F. (1997, May 2). Middle East studies resources. Retrieved August 19, 1997 from

Arab Republic of Egypt. (1997, June 1). Retrieved August 18, 1997 from

Other examples:
For other examples visit Purdue's Owl citation tool:



Zotero is a free, open source browser app that collects, manages, cites, and shares your research sources. It lives right in your web browser, and has a similar design to the iTunes library. 

For help with Zotero contact:
Bill Kelm, or
John Repplinger,